Northern and Southern Lights observed on Saturn at the same time

I’m going to start with some of the fundamentals on this one, and build towards the titular observation.

Everyone’s familiar with magnets. I’m not, in this post, going to drill down into the Standard Model view of electromagnetism; let’s just go with what we know, that some things – like iron – can produce strong magnetic fields.

The Earth is one of those things that produces a magnetic field. It has one mostly because of the molten metal that’s moving around beneath the surface. The Earth ends up being pretty close to a magnetic dipole, like one of those bar magnets you played with in science class in school, so named because it has a north and south pole (that is, its field has an orientation, and each “end” of the magnetic field acts differently). The Earth’s like that too, with two concentrations of the magnetic field lines all collecting at places somewhat close-ish to the geographic north and south poles.

At the same time we’ve got the Sun producing something called the solar wind. That’s the name given to the constant stream of charged particles – electrons and protons, mostly – that are streaming away from the Sun all the time. They’re coming at the Earth, and everything else in the solar system, all the time. Those particles are affected by magnetic fields, though. If they come close to the Earth’s magnetic poles, the shape and strength of the field in those spots can be just enough pull them into our atmosphere. If they do, and the particles smash into oxygen and nitrogen atoms in our air, they can combine and give off a flash of energy that may manifest itself as visible light. That is what we call the Northern (or Southern) Lights, or the aurora borealis(or australis).

But many planets have a magnetic field, and the solar wind blows everywhere, so it’s not just our planet that has these aurora. Saturn has them too, but we weren’t able to see them until 1997. This is because when the charged particles from the solar wind get caught in Saturn’s magnetic field they slam into different atoms, and the flash of energy they give off isn’t visible light, but ultraviolet light of a frequency that gets absorbed in our atmosphere. The first time Saturn’s aurorae were seen was from the Hubble telescope (which, because it’s in space outside our atmosphere, can see that UV light).

Last year, however, Saturn was in just the right spot that its rings and equator were edge-on from our point of view. This meant that we could see the aurorae of both poles at the same time. In doing so we were able to detectdifferences in the north and south aurora. These observations may help us understand the aurora phenomenon, the solar wind, and the internal structure of Saturn.

Here’s a short video of the Hubble images of both aurorae at once.

Or you can click through to this Guardian Science article that has a longer and more detailed explanation from NASA.

AMAZING space videos

Holy CRAP, but NASA is putting up some INCREDIBLE videos lately. Scienceblogs’ Dynamics of Cats has collected a couple of the best.

The first vid – of the STS-125 (the recent Atlantis) launch – is long, but soooo worth it. In fact, the first seven minutes cover the launch, booster separation, and splash-down; it’s then shown again from other positions and angles (but all are worth it – the second sequence, starting at about 07:30, has audio).

The second vid is taken by the astronauts inside the shuttle as they release the Hubble telescope, having effected their improvements.


Expecting big things from an upgraded Hubble telescope

The Hubble telescope has already brought us many amazing images from space. Today the shuttle Atlantis will launch on a mission to improve and upgrade the telescope. Who knows what other pictures it could show us?

From the BBC:

Expect “shock and awe in science” from a repaired and upgraded Hubble Space Telescope.

If all goes completely to plan on Hubble Servicing Mission 4, the orbiting observatory will be reborn as the most productive telescope in history, with even greater powers to probe the Universe’s deep history and help cosmologists make sense of one of their biggest problems – “dark energy”.

Over five long days of well rehearsed but exhausting work on Hubble, the astronauts on the shuttle Atlantis have the task of installing a new panoramic camera and a latest-generation spectrograph.

The Hubble Telescope: everything we see is history

This short blog by Jonah Lehrer in The Frontal Cortex caught my eye because it was about one of the most iconic space photos ever (despite being relatively recent), the Eagle Nebula’s “Pillars of Creation”. It certainly is a very cool picture.

Lehrer is mourning the Pillars, since recently-reported temperature data from them indicates that one of the stars inside the nebula is almost certainly going supernova, and the resultant shockwave will blow away most of the pillars (which are mostly just dust).

Or, rather, a star in the Eagle Nebula did go supernova about 8000 years ago. It takes light about 7000 years to get here from there, and it would take about 2000 years for the shockwave to expand and blow away the nebula. That’s why the light from the supernova would have shown up here on earth as a very bright star about 1000 years ago; why the Hubble was able to take pictures of the nebula 13 years ago; why we see the nebula gas heating up now; and why 1000 years from now the Eagle Nebula will disppear from our view, seven thousand years after it actually happened.

I understand Lehrer’s sadness, but I think there are plenty more surprises out there for us. Check out this link from his blog entry that outlines many of the famous Hubble images, plus summarizes some of the telescope’s history, accomplishments, and future.